Metformin is an oral antidiabetic drug in the biguanide class. It is the first-line drug of choice for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, in particular, in overweight and obese people and those with normal kidney function.
Indications and Usage:
For the treatment of diabetes. It is specifically used for lowering post-prandial blood glucose levels thereby reducing the risk of macrovascular complications.
Insulin, sulfonylamides, sulfonylureas or biguanides, β -blockers, MAOIs Monoamine oxidase inhibitors) & salicylic acid prep. Drugs like thiazides and other diuretics, corticosteroids, phenothiazines, thyroid products, estrogens, oral contraceptives, phenytoin, nicotinic acid, sympathomimetics, calcium channel blocking drugs, and isoniazid may cause hypoglycemia. When such drugs are administered to a patient receiving metformin, the patient should be closely observed to maintain adequate glycemic control.
Mechanism of Action:
Voglibose is an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, it is an oral anti-diabetic drugs used used for lowering post-prandial blood glucose levels in people with diabetes mellitus type 2. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors are act as competitive inhibitors of enzymes needed to digest carbohydrates: specifically alpha-glucosidase enzymes in the brush border of the small intestines. The membrane-bound intestinal alpha-glucosidases hydrolyze oligosaccharides, trisaccharides, and disaccharides to glucose and other monosaccharides in the small intestine. that prevents the digestion of complex carbohydrates (such as starch). Complex carbohydrates are normally converted into simple sugars (monosaccharides) which can be absorbed through the intestine. Hence, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors reduce the impact of complex carbohydrates on blood sugar and decreases the post prandial hyperglycemia in diabetes. Metformin is the oral anti hyperglycemic drug used in the management of type2 diabetes. It is the class of biguanides. Metformin improves glucose tolerance in patients with type 2 diabetes, Metformin lowers both basal and postprandial blood glucose. Metformin decreases hepatic glucose production, decrease intestinal absorption of glucose and improves peripheral glucose uptake and utilization. Metformin is the first-line drug of choice for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, particularly in overweight and obese people and those with normal kidney function.
Voglibose is slowly and poorly absorbed, and is rapidly excreted. Little metabolism occurs. Voglibose competitively and reversibly inhibits the alpha-glucosidase enzymes; glucoamylase, sucrase, etc.
Metformin has an absolute oral bioavailability of 40 to 60%, and gastrointestinal absorption is apparently complete within 6 hours of ingestion. Metformin is rapidly distributed following absorption and does not bind to plasma proteins. No metabolites or conjugates of metformin have been identified. The absence of liver metabolism clearly differentiates the pharmacokinetics of metformin from that of other biguanides, such as phenformin. Metformin undergoes renal excretion and has a mean plasma elimination half-life after oral administration of between 4.0 and 8.7 hours. This elimination is prolonged in patients with renal impairment and correlates with creatinine clearance.
Voglibose, an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, is a synthetic compound with potent and enduring therapeutic efficacies against disorders of sensory, motor and autonomic nerve systems due to diabetes mellitus. The drug was approved in Japan in 1994 for the treatment of diabetes, and it is under further investigation by Takeda for the treatment of impaired glucose tolerance. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors are oral anti-diabetic drugs used for diabetes mellitus type 2 that work by preventing the digestion of complex carbohydrates (such as starch). Complex carbohydrates are normally converted into simple sugars (monosaccharides) which can be absorbed through the intestine. Hence, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors reduce the impact of complex carbohydrates on blood sugar.
Severe ketosis, diabetic coma or pre-coma, severe infection, before or after operation, or with severe trauma